The types, affects, and treatments of common dental disorders
Common dental disorders include caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, and
pulpitis. Dental emergencies, such as toothache, fractured or avulsed teeth, and
CariesCaries is tooth decay, commonly called cavities. The symptoms—tender, painful teeth—appear late. Diagnosis is based on inspection, probing of the enamel surface with a fine metal instrument, and dental x-rays. Treatment involves removing affected tooth structure and restoring it with various materials. Fluoride, diligent dental hygiene, sealants, and proper diet can prevent virtually all caries.
by diffuse, relatively avascular smooth or nodular enlargement of the
gingiva, which may almost cover some teeth. The hypertrophied tissue is
often excised. If possible, substitutions are made for the offending drugs.
Scrupulous oral hygiene may minimize recurrence. Carcinoma can also
originate in the gingiva and spread to regional lymph nodes.
Pulpitis is inflammation of the dental pulp resulting from untreated caries, trauma, or multiple restorations. Its principal symptom is pain. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and is confirmed by x-ray. Treatment involves removing decay, restoring the damaged tooth, and sometimes doing root canal therapy or extracting the tooth.
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