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What is Voice, Speech and Language

The functions, skills, and abilities of voice, speech, and language are related. Some dictionaries and textbooks use the terms almost interchangeably. But for scientists and medical professionals, it is important to distinguish among them.


Voice (or vocalization) is the sound produced by humans and other vertebrates using the lungs and the vocal folds in the larynx, or voice box. Voice is not always produced as speech, however. Infants babble and coo; animals bark, moo, whinny, growl, and meow; and adult humans laugh, sing, and cry. Voice is generated by airflow from the lungs as the vocal folds are brought close together. When air is pushed past the vocal folds with sufficient pressure, the vocal folds vibrate. If the vocal folds in the larynx did not vibrate normally, speech could only be produced as a whisper. Your voice is as unique as your fingerprint. It helps define your personality, mood, and health.

Approximately 7.5 million people in the United States have trouble using their voices. Disorders of the voice involve problems with pitch, loudness, and quality. Pitch is the highness or lowness of a sound based on the frequency of the sound waves.

Loudness is the perceived volume (or amplitude) of the sound, while quality refers to the character or distinctive attributes of a sound. Many people who have normal speaking skills have great difficulty communicating when their vocal apparatus fails. This can occur if the nerves controlling the larynx are impaired because of an accident, a surgical procedure, a viral infection, or cancer.


Humans express thoughts, feelings, and ideas orally to one another through a series of complex movements that alter and mold the basic tone created by voice into specific, decodable sounds. Speech is produced by precisely coordinated muscle actions in the head, neck, chest, and abdomen. Speech development is a gradual process that requires years of practice. During this process, a child learns how to regulate these muscles to produce understandable speech.

However, by the first grade, roughly 5 percent of children have noticeable speech disorders; the majority of these speech disorders have no known cause. One category of speech disorder is fluency disorder, or stuttering, which is characterized by a disruption in the flow of speech. It includes repetitions of speech sounds, hesitations before and during speaking, and the prolonged emphasis of speech sounds. More than 15 million individuals in the world stutter, most of whom began stuttering at a very early age. The majority of speech sound disorders in the preschool years occur in children who are developing normally in all other areas. Speech disorders also may occur in children who have developmental disabilities.


Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experienced, explained, and shared. This sharing is based on systematic, conventionally used signs, sounds, gestures, or marks that convey understood meanings within a group or community. Recent research identifies "windows of opportunity" for acquiring language--written, spoken, or signed--that exist within the first few years of life.

Between 6 and 8 million individuals in the United States have some form of language impairment. Disorders of language affect children and adults differently. For children who do not use language normally from birth, or who acquire an impairment during childhood, language may not be fully developed or acquired. Many children who are deaf in the United States use a natural sign language known as American Sign Language (ASL).

ASL shares an underlying organization with spoken language and has its own syntax and grammar. Many adults acquire disorders of language because of stroke, head injury, dementia, or brain tumors. Language disorders also are found in adults who have failed to develop normal language skills because of mental retardation, autism, hearing impairment, or other congenital or acquired disorders of brain development.

Specific Speech and Communications Conditions

  • Apraxia of Speech (source: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders)
  • Developmental Dyspraxia (source: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)
  • Dysarthria (source: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association)
  • Hypernasality: A Treatable Speech Disorder (source: American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery)
  • Language-Based Learning Disabilities (source: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association)
  • Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders (source: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association)
  • Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement ( source: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association)
  • Tongue-Tie (Ankyloglossia) ( source: American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery)
  • Traumatic Brain Injury: Cognitive and Communication Disorders ( source: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders)


Speech and Communication Disorders Resources



MEDLINE® (Medical Literature, Analysis, and Retrieval System Online) is the U.S. National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) premier bibliographic database that contains over 12 million references to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine. It can be searched via PubMed® or the NLM Gateway at www.nlm.nih.gov.

How to perform a MEDLINE/PubMed search. MEDLINE can be searched using NLM's vocabulary-based browser known as MeSH, short for Medical Subject Headings, or by author name, title word, text word, journal name, phrase, or any combination of these. The result of a search is a list of citations (including authors, title, source, and often an abstract) to journal articles. PubMed also searches MEDLINE "in-process" citations that are added daily, as well as some citations that arrive electronically directly from publishers.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)
10801 Rockville Pike
Rockville, MD 20852
Voice: (301) 897-5700
Toll-free Voice: (800) 638-8255
TTY: (301) 897-0157
Fax: (301) 571-0457
E-mail: actioncenter@asha.org
Internet: www.asha.org


National Black Association for Speech-Language and Hearing (NBASLH)
P.O. Box 61328
Charleston, SC 29419
Voice: (843) 574-6441
Fax: (843) 820-5026
E-mail: nbaslh2@aol.com
Internet: www.nbaslh.org

To access a wide range of organizations and agencies providing information or services related to normal and disordered processes of voice, speech, and language, go to the online NIDCD Information Resources Directory at www.nidcd.nih.gov/directory, or request a hard copy of the directory at (800) 241-1044.


source: www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/whatis_vsl.htm
communication disorders

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